BACKGROUND: Falls are the major cause of hip fractures in elderly patients. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the underlying causes of fall-induced hip fractures in the elderly. METHODS: The study included 32 patients (18 males, 14 females; mean age 78 years; range 57 to 95 years) who had proximal femoral fractures following an unexpected and sudden fall from about a meter height at a moment of lying, sitting, or standing position. Underlying causes of falls were sought, including previous falls, stroke, polyneuropathy, motion disorders, dementia, vision problems, fainting, vestibular pathologies, and cardiac diseases. RESULTS: Eight patients (25%) had a history of previous falls and 12 patients (37.5%) had a history of stroke. Polyneuropathy, Parkinson's Disease, and dementia were diagnosed in eight (25%), three (9.4%), and five (15.6%) patients, respectively. Twenty-one patients (65.6%) had neurologic diseases, 11 patients (34.4%) had cataract or other vision problems, eight patients (25%) had osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, 10 patients (31.3%) had vestibular pathologies, and 17 patients (53.1%) had cardiac diseases such as heart failure, orthostatic hypotension, ischemic heart disease, and arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: In order to prevent recurrent falls, risk factors associated with falls should be determined and preventive treatment and measures should be put into practice in elderly patients who have fall-induced injuries.